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What Is The Legend Of El Dorado VideoWas El Dorado found? - Myth Stories
Their searches for this treasure wasted countless lives, drove at least one man to suicide, and put another man under the executioner's ax.
The origins of El Dorado lie deep in South America. And like all enduring legends, the tale of El Dorado contains some scraps of truth.
When Spanish explorers reached South America in the early 16th century, they heard stories about a tribe of natives high in the Andes mountains in what is now Colombia.
When a new chieftain rose to power, his rule began with a ceremony at Lake Guatavita. Accounts of the ceremony vary, but they consistently say the new ruler was covered with gold dust, and that gold and precious jewels were thrown into the lake to appease a god that lived underwater.
The Spaniards started calling this golden chief El Dorado, "the gilded one. But the Spaniards and other Europeans had found so much gold among the natives along the continent's northern coast that they believed there had to be a place of great wealth somewhere in the interior.
They lowered its level enough to find hundreds of pieces of gold along the lake's edge. Research and ancient texts reveal that the El Dorado of Colombia was never originally considered a city of gold at all.
Archaeological evidence and Spanish accounts of the stories indicate that during initiation ceremonies their chiefs became covered in gold dust and taken to the center of Lake Guatavita on a raft.
Once in the center, he would throw precious items made of gold and gems as an offering to the gods. Lake Guatavita may hold countless items of gold.
Image; Shutterstock. Other accounts of the story say that the chief had so much gold, that he would cover himself with gold dust and submerse himself in the lake along with the golden treasure.
This would appease the gods, and the Muisca believed a balance and harmony in their environment and within the tribe would be granted. Spanish explorers heard of these stories and were led by their greed.
The seductive tale of El Dorado would eventually become generically known as any undiscovered place filled with treasure somewhere in the Americas.
Was this the origin of the legend of El Dorado? Interestingly, in gold-hungry Spaniards attempted to drain Lake Guatavita. They removed a significant amount of gold, but could not reach the trove that supposedly existed in the deepest parts of the lake.
In the s many other explorers claimed they found El Dorado. It was once thought that Sir Walter Raleigh had found it at the end of the s.
English maps listed it and described it as a location in the north. This location was thought to be significant until the s when Alexander von Humbolt proved otherwise during his own exploration of South America.
A portion of a map of northeastern South America. The legend of El Dorado originated in Colombia, and it appears we have enough evidence to explain that legend today.
Hunters still cling to the belief there is an El Dorado in South America. He avowed at his death that he entered the city at noon, and then they uncovered his face; and that he traveled all that day till night through the city, and the next day from sun rising to sun setting, ere he came to the palace of Inga.
After that Martinez had lived seven months in Manoa, and began to understand the language of the country, Inga asked him whether he desired to return into his own country, or would willingly abide with him.
But Martinez, not desirous to stay, obtained the favour of Inga to depart. The fable of Juan Martinez was founded on the adventures of Juan Martin de Albujar, well known to the Spanish historians of the Conquest; and who, in the expedition of Pedro de Silva , fell into the hands of the Caribs of the Lower Orinoco.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, Europeans, still fascinated by the New World, believed that a hidden city of immense wealth existed.
Numerous expeditions were mounted to search for this treasure, all of which ended in failure. The illustration of El Dorado's location on maps only made matters worse, as it made some people think that the city of El Dorado's existence had been confirmed.
The mythical city of El Dorado on Lake Parime was marked on numerous maps until its existence was disproved by Alexander von Humboldt during his Latin America expedition — Meanwhile, the name of El Dorado came to be used metaphorically of any place where wealth could be rapidly acquired.
It was given to El Dorado County, California , and to towns and cities in various states. It has also been anglicized to the single word Eldorado , and is sometimes used in product titles to suggest great wealth and fortune, such as the Cadillac Eldorado line of luxury automobiles.
El Dorado is also sometimes used as a metaphor to represent an ultimate prize or " Holy Grail " that one might spend one's life seeking. It could represent true love, heaven, happiness, or success.
It is used sometimes as a figure of speech to represent something much sought after that may not even exist, or, at least, may not ever be found.
The other side of the ideal quest metaphor may be represented by Helldorado , a satirical nickname given to Tombstone, Arizona United States in the s by a disgruntled miner who complained that many of his profession had traveled far to find El Dorado, only to wind up washing dishes in restaurants.
Spanish conquistadores had noticed the native people's fine artifacts of gold and silver long before any legend of "golden men" or "lost cities" had appeared.
The prevalence of such valuable artifacts, and the natives' apparent ignorance of their value, inspired speculation as to a plentiful source for them.
Prior to the time of the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and discovery of Lake Guatavita, a handful of expeditions had set out to explore the lowlands to the east of the Andes in search of gold, cinnamon, precious stones, and anything else of value.
During the Klein-Venedig period in Venezuela — , agents of the German Welser banking family which had received a concession from Charles I of Spain launched repeated expeditions into the interior of the country in search of gold , starting with Ambrosius Ehinger 's first expedition in July Spanish explorer Diego de Ordaz , then governor of the eastern part of Venezuela known as Paria named after Paria Peninsula , was the first European to explore the Orinoco river in —32 in search of gold.
After his return he died, possibly poisoned, on a voyage back to Spain. In , he ordered captain Alonso de Herrera to move inland by the waters of the Uyapari River today the town of Barrancas del Orinoco.
Herrera, who had accompanied Ordaz three years before, explored the Meta River but was killed by the indigenous Achagua near its banks, while waiting out the winter rains in Casanare.
The earliest reference to an El Dorado-like kingdom occurred in during Ordaz's expedition when he was told of a kingdom called Meta that was said to exist beyond a mountain on the left bank of the Orinoco River.
Meta was supposedly abundant in gold and ruled by a chief that only had one intact eye. In Hutten led an exploring party of about men, mostly horsemen, from Coro on the coast of Venezuela in search of the Golden City.
After several years of wandering, harassed by the natives and weakened by hunger and fever, he crossed the Rio Bermejo, and went on with a small group of around 40 men on horseback into Los Llanos , where they engaged in battle with a large number of Omaguas and Hutten was severely wounded.
He led those of his followers who survived back to Coro in Welser , were executed in El Tocuyo by the Spanish authorities. In , Sebastian de Benalcazar , a lieutenant of Francisco Pizarro, interrogated an Indian that had been captured at Quito.
Luis Daza recorded that the Indian was a warrior while Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas wrote that the Indian was an ambassador who had come to request military assistance from the Inca, unaware that they had already been conquered.
The Indian told Benalcazar that he was from a kingdom of riches known as Cundinamarca far to the north where a zipa, or chief, covered himself in gold dust during ceremonies.
In , stories of El Dorado drew the Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada and his army of men away from their mission to find an overland route to Peru and up into the Andean homeland of the Muisca for the first time.
The southern Muisca settlements and their treasures quickly fell to the conquistadors in and Quesada believed this might have been El Dorado and decided to postpone his return to Santa Marta and continue his expedition for another year.
One of his main captains on this journey was Baltasar Maldonado. In , Gonzalo Pizarro , the younger half-brother of Francisco Pizarro , the Spanish conquistador who toppled the Incan Empire in Peru, was made the governor of the province of Quito in northern Ecuador.
Shortly after taking lead in Quito, Gonzalo learned from many of the natives of a valley far to the east rich in both cinnamon and gold.
He banded together soldiers and about natives in and led them eastward down the Rio Coca and Rio Napo. Francisco de Orellana accompanied Pizarro on the expedition as his lieutenant.
Gonzalo quit after many of the soldiers and natives had died from hunger, disease, and periodic attacks by hostile natives. He ordered Orellana to continue downstream, where he eventually made it to the Atlantic Ocean.
The expedition found neither cinnamon nor gold, but Orellana is credited with discovering the Amazon River so named because of a tribe of female warriors that attacked Orellana's men while on their voyage.
After 3 months, the water level had been reduced by 3 metres, and only a small amount of gold was recovered, with a value of — pesos approx.
A notch was cut deep into the rim of the lake, which managed to reduce the water level by 20 metres, before collapsing and killing many of the labourers.
A share of the findings—consisting of various golden ornaments, jewellery and armour—was sent to King Philip II of Spain.
He died a poor man, and is buried at the church in the small town of Guatavita. The lake was drained by a tunnel that emerged in the centre of the lake.
The water was drained to a depth of about 4 feet of mud and slime. Some of these were donated to the British Museum.
In , the Colombian government designated the lake as a protected area. Private salvage operations, including attempts to drain the lake, are now illegal.
Between and he carried out his first two expeditions, going through the wild regions of the Colombian plains and the Upper Orinoco.
Berrio took them to the territories he had previously explored by himself years before. Walter Raleigh 's journey with Antonio de Berrio had aimed to reach Lake Parime in the highlands of Guyana the supposed location of El Dorado at the time.
He was encouraged by the account of Juan Martinez, believed to be Juan Martin de Albujar, who had taken part in Pedro de Silva's expedition of the area in , only to fall into the hands of the Caribs of the Lower Orinoco.
Martinez claimed that he was taken to the golden city in blindfold, was entertained by the natives, and then left the city and couldn't remember how to return.
First, he wanted to find the mythical city of El Dorado, which he suspected to be an actual Indian city named Manõa. Second, he hoped to establish an English presence in the Southern Hemisphere that could compete with that of the Spanish.
His third goal was to create an English settlement in the land called Guyana, and to try to reduce commerce between the natives and Spaniards. In Raleigh sent his lieutenant, Lawrence Kemys , back to Guyana in the area of the Orinoco River, to gather more information about the lake and the golden city.
Kemys described the coast of Guiana in detail in his Relation of the Second Voyage to Guiana  and wrote that indigenous people of Guiana traveled inland by canoe and land passages towards a large body of water on the shores of which he supposed was located Manoa, Golden City of El Dorado.
Though Raleigh never found El Dorado, he was convinced that there was some fantastic city whose riches could be discovered.
Finding gold on the riverbanks and in villages only strengthened his resolve. However, Raleigh, by now an old man, stayed behind in a camp on the island of Trinidad.
Watt Raleigh was killed in a battle with Spaniards and Kemys subsequently committed suicide. On 23 March , Robert Harcourt accompanied by his brother Michael and a company of adventurers, sailed for Guiana.
On 11 May he arrived at the Oyapock River. Local people came on board, and were disappointed at the absence of Sir Walter Raleigh after he had famously visited during his exploration of the area in Harcourt gave them aqua vitae.
He took possession in the king's name of a tract of land lying between the River Amazon and River Essequibo on 14 August, left his brother and most of his company to colonise it, and four days later embarked for England.
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